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Tuesday, November 29, 2011

Daily Hadith:To Make The Heart Tender - 2nd Muharram 1433 (27th November 2011)

Daily Hadith:To Make The Heart Tender - 2nd Muharram 1433 (27th November 2011) quran teaching online in usa

Bismillah Walhamdulillah Was Salaatu Was Salaam 'ala Rasulillah

As-Salaam Alaikum Wa-Rahmatullahi Wa-Barakatuhu

To Make The Heart Tender - 2nd Muharram 1433 (27th November 2011)

Narrated Abu Huraira (Radi-Allahu 'anhu):

Allah's Apostle (Sallallahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam) said, "Allah says, 'I have
nothing to give but Paradise as a reward to my believer slave, who, if I
cause his dear friend (or relative) to die, remains patient (and hopes for
Allah's Reward)."

Bukhari Vol. 8 : No. 432


Your Islamic Website here. Contact for details.


Ma'asalaam quran teaching online in usa

Thursday, November 24, 2011

The Way to Achieve Happiness


The Way to Achieve Happiness

Written By : Abdul-Rahman Dimashqiyyah

It is the nature of every
person to seek happiness, happiness is the object of all their strive. Some people strive
to seek a temporal happiness of this world, thinking that this is the only true happiness
which bill be succeeded by pain and sorrow at the day of doom, these will tomorrow know
that they were striving to achieve misery.

While others know that to obey Allah, and follow
His religion, and to fix themselves to faith in Him is the only true way to happiness. For
them the pleasures and riches of the world are of little consequence.

When this happiness penetrates and fills the heart
of the believing servant of Allah he does in fact live in the world as if he were in
Paradise. These are the people who find true happiness in this world. What kind of
happiness could be greater than that of someone who humbles himself to Allah, worships Him
and strives for His pleasure and for success on the Day of Resurrection, strives for
Paradise and for deliverance from hellfire? Happiness is not a thing that must slip from
our hands, not something totally of this world made to pass away. The believer lives with
such a sweetness in his heart that if the masters of the earth knew of it they would fight
him to the death to take it from him.

Allah says " Whoever
does right, whether male or female, and is a believer, We will make him live a good life,
and We will award them their reward for the best of what they used to do

Happiness is the good life that even the rich
disbelievers can not win despite the money they have, that is why you are not surprise
when you know that many among them suiside.

People will not be happy until they know why theye
were created, and then where are going to after they die.

We know much about mars, moon, stars, galaxies,
thanks to the century of knowldege. But how much we know about ourselves? we only know but
few about ourselves.

It is good that we know much about Mars star, but
it is not just that we know about more than to know about ourselves. For if we do not know
why we were created we will not why we die.

Food for the Body and
Food for the Soul



People need to eat every day
to supply their bodies with energy and to keep themselves healthy. If they stop eating for
any length of time, disease will sneak up upon them and overtake them, perhaps even
killing them. But people also need food of another kind, food for the spirit and food for
the heart. It is unfortunate that while people are careful never to forget to feed their
bodies they do not show the same concern for the health of their souls and of their

The heart needs food like the body needs food. The
diseases of the body and the debilitating effects they have are not more dangerous than
the diseases of the heart, such as pride and arrogance and hypocrisy and the stony
hardening of the heart that all come from spiritual starvation.

And the worst among those is the disease of Shirk,
when the heart sticks to creatures making them equal to Allah.

If a person feels that his body is ill, he will
try to find help as quickly as possible, fearing for his health and for his life. But
diseases of the spirit, such as doubt and jealousy and hypocrisy and arrogance and a
clinging dependence upon the world, may not provoke this same response. It is as if a
person only feels the danger of material things, and is unaware of the dangers of the
heart. The greatest disease of the heart is to associate something else with Allah. This
is the greatest cause for people loosing all they have in the world and all they could
have in the next. The cure for this disease is to know the Oneness of Allah, to be sincere
in this knowledge, and to link your heart to it both inwardly and outwardly.

It should surprise no one that the call to the
Oneness of Allah lies at the very heart of Islam. This is the word of truth without which
there is no Islam. It is the key, the thing which makes a person a Muslim, it is the key
to Paradise. No better word could come from the tongue of man. It was the finest word of
all the prophets. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said “The finest word that I have said, and that the prophets before me said was,
‘There is no god but Allah.
’” It is the finest thing a person can
say when death comes. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, “Whose
last word is ‘There is no God but Allah,’ has entered Paradise.

This does not mean that Islam is nothing more than
tawhid, or that tawhid is nothing more than acknowledging that Allah is One and that He is
the Creator of the heavens and the earth and everything that is. Tawhid also means that
nothing else may be taken as an object of worship except for Allah. The servant of Allah
draws near only to Him, and his prayers and his fasting are directed at none other than

In fact, those who do not depend upon Allah, and
who do not apply the Sharia to their lives, and who are afraid of others more than they
are afraid of Allah, and who love others more than they love Allah are endangering their
faith. Those who place their faith in numbers and in omens and believe in other
superstitions have taken shirk into their hearts and by this have denied a part of tawhid.
It does not matter that they say “There is no god but Allah.” If they are not
free of attitudes and beliefs that contradict their words, if they do not fulfill their
obligations to Allah, then they have placed themselves in danger. We have been warned
about a kind of shirk that catches its victim unaware. We have been warned about ria’
(show off), the pleasure we get from others seeing us doing good works, both with respect
to prayer and with respect to our other activities.

A person may be praying and suddenly notice that
someone sees him, and so he makes a special effort to humble himself in his prayer since
his friend or his brother may be watching. It was for this reason that we have been
advised to conceal charity, and to conceal it to the extent that the left hand does not
know what the right hand has spent. We should conceal this from the eyes of others because
Allah will not accept any deed not done entirely for love of Him. We are to do this to
ensure that our deeds are for the sake of Allah alone, and that nothing may sneak up upon
us to compromise our belief in the Oneness of Allah, and our sincerity in this belief.

Have you packed your bags ?


When we pack our bags to go visit far away living friends, we remember to pack our clothes, shoes, bathroom neccesities and other little things ....

Since we could understand right from wrong, we have started packing our bags and will
finish when our souls leave us.

Have you packed your salah everyday?

Have you packed your fasting?

Have you packed your reading and memorizing the quran?

Have you packed those little things we do and get ajar for?

Have you?

Our bags are called life. We have to pack everyday because we don't know when Allah wil
call us back too him, so we have to be ready too go all the time, any where.

And on the way up to Allah, you don't get any U-turns so that you could go back and get
the things you forgot to pack. So start packing if you already haven't, and don't forget,
there's no such thing as too many bags when were packing for our trip to Allah.

Signs of weak Iman and how to increase it


A very nice article contributed by brother AbuBanan.


Signs of weak Faith: 

  • Committing sins and not feeling any guilt.

  • Having a hard heart and no desire to read the

  • Feeling too lazy to do good deeds, e.g. being late for salat

  • Neglecting the

  • Having mood swings, for instance being upset about petty things and
    bothered and irritated most of the time.

  • Not feeling anything when hearing verses from the Quran, for example when
    Allah warns us of punishments and His promise of glad tidings.

  • Finding difficulty in remembering Allah and making

  • Not feeling bad when things are done against the

  • Desiring status and wealth.

  • Being mean and miserly, i.e. not wanting to part with wealth.

  • Ordering others to do good deeds when not practising them ourselves.

  • Feeling pleased when things are not progressing for others.

  • Being concerned with whether something is haram or halal only; and not
    avoiding makroo (not recommended) things.

  • Making fun of people who do simple good deeds, like
    cleaning the mosque.

  • Not feeling concerned about the situation of Muslims.

  • Not feeling the responsibility to do something to promote Islam.

  • Liking to argue just for the sake of arguing without any proof.

  • Becoming engrossed and very involved with dunya, worldly things, i.e.
    feeling bad only when losing something in terms of material wealth.

  • Becoming engrossed and obsessive about ourselves. 

Okay, how to increase our
faith then ? 

  • Recite and ponder on the meanings of the Quran. Tranquility then descends
    and our hearts become soft. To get optimum benefit, remind yourself that Allah is speaking to you. People are described in different
    categories in the Quran; think of which one you find yourself in. 

  • Realize the greatness of Allah. Everything is under His control. There
    are signs in everything we see that points us to His greatness. Everything happens according to His permission. Allah keeps track and looks after
    everything, even a black ant on a black rock on a black moonless night. 

  • Make an effort to gain knowledge, for at least the basic things in daily
    life e.g. how to make wudu properly. Know the meanings behind Allah's names and attributes. People who have taqwa are those who have knowledge. 

  • Attend gatherings where Allah is remembered. In such gatherings we are
    surrounded by angels.

  • We have to increase our good deeds. One good deed leads to another good
    deed. Allah will make the way easy for someone who gives charity and also make it easy for him or her to do good deeds. Good deeds must be done
    continuously, not in spurts. 

  • We must fear the miserable end to our lives; the remembrance of death is
    the destroyer of pleasures. 

  • Remember the different levels of akhirah, for instance when we are put in
    our graves, when we are judged, whether we will be in paradise or hell. 

  • Make dua, realize that we need Allah. Be humble. Don't covet material
    things in this life. 

  • Our love for Subhana Wa Ta'Ala must be shown in actions. We must hope
    Allah will accept our prayers, and be in constant fear that we do wrong. At night before going to sleep, we must think about what good we did
    during that day. 

  • Realize the effects of sins and disobedience- one's
    faith is increased with good deeds and our faith is decreased by bad deeds. Everything that
    happens is because Allah wanted it. When calamity befalls us- it is also from
    Allah. It is a direct result of our disobedience to Allah. 

Contributed by: Abu Banan



A 15 years old sister compare between knowledge and wealth.




  • KNOWLEDGE guards you while you guard WEALTH.

  • KNOWLEDGE is increased when distributed while WEALTH is decreased when given to others.

  • A LITTERATE person may be poor but cannot be fooled but a WEALTHY person may be uneducated and can easily be deceived by anybody.

  • KNOWLEDGE is a gift from Allah and is inherited His by Apostles while WEALTH is inherited by

  • KNOWLEDGE increases one's faith in the oneness of Allah (Tawheed) while WEALTH deviates a person from the teaching of the Holy Quran, ahkam (injuntions) of Allah, the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and the Shari'a (Islamic Law).

  • KNOWLEDGE makes a person modest while WEALTH makes a person arrogant.

  • The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) lived in misery but was a very INTELLIGENT person that's why he has earned the title of the Greatest Leader of Mankind while his the persecutors lived in OPULENCE but was ignorant that's the reason for which they were known as

  • We can conclude by saying that it is better to live a humble life but being EDUCATED rather than living a life of LAVISHNESS but being unschooled.



    May Allah show us the right path.Ameen.

    Contributed by: Faatimah Bibi Dulull ( 15 Years old )

    Island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean. Editor's Comment : 

    May Allah reward you sister Faatimah for writing this nice article in that very young age, and thanks to Allah that we have good people like you.
    Of course knowledge is more important than wealth as you mentioned but also if a Muslim can gain both knowledge and wealth .. or can use his wealth to serve Islam that would be a great option. So
    of course this article is directed for those who seek wealth without caring about Allah's satisfaction.

    Ten Sicknesses of The Heart


    1. You believe in the existance of Allah Ta'ala, but you do not fulfil his commands.

    2. You say you love the Holy Prophet Mohammed (Sallallahu 'alahi wasallam), but you do not follow his sunnah (ie, his example).

    3. You Read The Qur'an but you do not put it into practice. 

    4. You enjoy all the benefits from Allah Ta'ala, but you are not grateful to him. 

    5. You acknowledge Shaytan as your enemy, but you do not go against him. 

    6. You want to enter paradise, but you do not work for it. 

    7. You do not want to be thrown into hell-fire, but you do not try to get away (ie, do good deeds). 

    8. You believe that every living-thing will face death, but you do not prepare for it. 

    9. You gossip and find faults in others, but you forgot your own faults and mistakes. 

    10. You bury the dead, but you do not take a lesson from it.

    A message to someone Drowning




    I would like to let you know that I have committed
    most major sins and I am not saying this in order to take pride in my sins; I
    used to feel this before but not any longer. I have drunk wine twice in my life
    or perhaps three times, I don’t know. I have committed adultery with almost 10
    women and I was about to destroy the future of a girl but Allah saved her from
    my harm; I do not know is it possible that Allah repents on me and forgives me?
    I don’t know, I have tried to repent more than once and every time I return to
    the same sins to the degree that I have felt I am a hypocrite who is not afraid
    of death and being accounted. Sometimes I feel that Allah loves me and that I
    love Him, but then Satan quickly takes over my heart again.

    I have
    defeated Satan in many rounds, but he defeated me in more battles; Is it
    possible for me to return to Allah once again and how?

    I have prayed
    a lot but more than that I have interrupted my prayers. My weakness has reached
    points a believer cannot imagine.

    I have sworn
    upon the Holy Quran that I will stop smoking but I haven’t.

    I have
    promised Allah Himself that I will not view pornographic sites and that I will
    never visit them again and that I will not watch those unclean movies that the
    west uses to kill our faith but I have broken my promise to Allah; My will has
    weakened to a level that nobody can imagine after I used to have strength in
    performance and the ability to change my personality and my way of life;

    I have become
    a person who does not feel the pleasure of life even though I still maintain my
    soul and my rounds of vice, sins, lying, cheating; so how do I get rescued?

    I want to
    know what religious people have known but what

    I haven’t. I
    am sure that they know something I don’t know and don’t feel, so why? This is
    me so what do I do to benefit me, may Allah benefit you.



    In the name
    of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. All praise be to Allah, and prayers and
    greetings upon our prophet Muhammad and his family and companions.

    The prophet
    (PBUH) said Allah will repent upon whoever repents before the sun rises from
    the west [reported by Muslim from the hadith of Abu Hurairah]

    I have read
    your message, and I know that nothing prevents you from repenting, even if your
    sins reach the sky or fill the whole earth. As long as the human is in this
    life, the door of repentance is open. I have noted from your letter that you
    are living a battle between the call of faith in your heart, and the call of
    desire that is guided by Satan in your heart

    Praise be to
    Allah the Exalted who has retained in your heart some of the light of faith,
    which blames you for sins, and beautified good deeds to you.

    But this
    light is weak, because the darkness of sins, which are the blowings of Satan,
    has weakened this light. This is why it sometimes shines, making your
    conscience awake a little, only to extinguish again and you return to
    committing sins.

    I will
    clarify to you the illness that you are suffering from, then I will describe
    the treatment, so please read this with reflection and interest, may Allah
    benefit you from it.

    Dear brother,
    the heart is the place of will in the human; sometimes it wants good, and
    sometimes evil, and the body parts are nothing but soldiers that obey the heart
    according to what it desires.

    difference between religious people and yourself is that the hearts of the
    former firmly want good, so their body parts obey this will and are thus
    persistent in obeying Allah the Exalted. As for yourself, your heart knows good
    and evil, and differentiates between good and bad deeds, but it cannot want
    good, so you find that it wants desires even though it knows they will harm it,
    so it commands the body parts so they obey it, but what is the reason?.

    The reason is
    that the hearts that are immune to Satan easily want to do good because these
    hearts are healthy and strong. On the other hand, in hearts that Satan can
    enter and wonder in freely, Satan can easily achieve making the heart want
    sins, after he has made them look attractive to the heart, because the latter is
    ill and full of satanic germs.

     For some people, Satan only briefly
    enters their hearts owing to the strong immunity surrounding them. For example,
    those who commit minor sins then quickly repent from them, and those are the
    ones about whom Allah (SWT) has said (interpretation of the meaning): {The
    pious ones, when a visitation from Satan afflicts them they become mindful,
    then lo! they see.}.

    There are
    some people whom Satan never comes close to their hearts, as they are like the
    sky, which is guarded from devils by flames; likewise their hearts are guarded
    from devils.

    The Prophet
    (PBUH) has said about this heart white like a smooth rock not harmed by
    temptation as long as the heavens and earth exist [reported by Muslim from the
    hadith of Huzaifah (RAA)]. Satan has entered the hearts of other people and has
    dwelled there and created a nest for himself in which he lays his eggs and
    hatches them. So he has controlled these hearts, commanding them to do
    forbidden desires, so their hearts want these desires and command their body
    parts to commit them and they indeed do that. This is because Satan has found
    hearts that have no immunity, their doors open, weak and ill owing to
    committing sins, and this is why Allah the Exalted has said about this type
    (interpretation of the meaning) {Satan has gained the mastery over them, so he
    has made them forget the remembrance of Allah}.

    Because the
    zikr (remembrance) of Allah is immunity from Satan, Satan has made them forget
    it in order to control and drive their hearts, which their body parts will then

    The heart is
    not immunized from Satan except with the zikr of Allah the Exalted, and it does
    not have the strength to want good except by doing good deeds.

    Satan does
    not defeat the heart unless it is inattentive of the zikr of

    Allah the
    Exalted and weak because of committing sins and vice.

    And now,
    after you have known the reason why your heart does not obey you in wanting to
    do good and avoid sins, and cannot preserve its righteousness, the treatment is
    in the following medical prescription. Take it and maintain it as its results
    are guaranteed -Allah willing - if you persevere it honestly:


    1.       Maintain the five
    prayers in congregation, especially the fajr prayer and never miss it. Allah

    Exalted says
    {and the fajr reading, for the fajr reading is witnessed} i.e. the fajr prayer
    is witnessed by angels.

    2.       After the fajr
    prayer remain in the mosque to read the Quran until sunrise, and then offer 2 rakas
    10 minutes after sunrise.

    3.       Say subhan Allah
    wa bi hamdih (may Allah be glorified and praised) one hundred times a day at
    any time in the mosque or house, whether walking, sitting, in the car, etc.
    This zikr wipes out sins.

    4.       Ask forgiveness
    of Allah one hundred times each day, saying astaghfirullah wa atoobu ilayh (I
    ask forgiveness of Allah and I repent to Him), once again at any time you wish
    and in whatever condition you are in.

    5.       Say this zikr: la
    ilaha illa Allahu wahdahu la sharika lah, lahulmulku wa lahulhamdu wa howa ala
    kul shayin qadeer (there is no god but Allah; He has no partner; He has the
    possession and praise, and He is capable of everything) one hundred times each
    day at any time you wish and in whatever condition you are in. It doesn’t
    necessarily have to be said in the mosque. The prophet (PBUH) maintained these
    zikrs, as they are the life of the heart and its indispensable nutrition.

    6.       Between Maghrib
    and Ishaa remain in the mosque and do not leave it, and recite as much as you
    can of the Quran while concentrating


    7.       You should
    totally avoid watching TV and reading magazines, and going to places where
    there is vice, as you are in quarantine in order to restore health to your
    heart, and the medicine (good deeds) will not benefit you if you induce disease
    (sins) into your heart during the treatment period.

    8.       Continue this
    program for at least a month: living with the Quran reciting it with
    consideration, and acting upon what is in it; spending time alone for long
    hours for the zikr of Allah the Exalted. The proof of doing this for a month is
    that the prophet (PBUH) ordered that by saying “Recite the Quran in a month, in
    25 days, in 10 days, in 7 days” [Bukhari & Muslim from the hadith of Ibn

    9.       If the
    environment in which you live does not support you in applying this program
    then change this environment: abandon bad friends, and avoid places in which
    you spend your free time if they encourage you to commit sins, and if you can
    travel to Makkah for example to follow this program then do it.

    10.     Donate part of your money as
    a form of repentance to Allah the Exalted, as secret charities are seen only by
    Allah the Exalted. In the authentic hadith “Secret charities extinguish the
    anger of the Lord” [narrated by ibn Hibban from the hadith of Anas].

    11.     Try to perform umrah with the
    intention of renewing your faith and cleansing your past with the water of this
    blessed trip. The prophet (PBUH) said A umrah causes forgiving of sins since
    the previous umrah, and an accepted hajj has no reward other than paradise
    [Bukhari & Muslim from the hadith of Abu Hurairah (RAA)].

    12.     If you owe anything to others
    return everything, and do not retain anything you will be accounted for, as a
    form of repentance to Allah.

    13.     Ask Allah every night during
    the sahar (prior to fajr) with this supplication Rabbi inni zalamtu nafsi
    zulman kathiran wa la yaghfir uzunuba illa Ant, faghfir lee maghfiratan min
    indik warhamni, inaka Anta Alghafoor Urraheem (My Lord, I have oppressed myself
    a lot and only You forgive sins, so forgive me a forgiveness from You and have
    mercy upon me, You are Most Forgiving, Most Merciful), and also Allahuma
    alhimni rushdi wa qini shar nafsi(O Allah, grant me my the right way and
    protect me from the evil of myself), as the prophet (PBUH) taught these two to
    some of his companions.

    In addition,
    perform a lot of istighfar and supplication, as the sahar is a time of
    acceptance of supplication.

    This is your
    prescription, and one month is not necessarily the period required, as change
    might appear on you before that, or you might need more than a month in this
    quarantine. The goal is to expel Satan from the heart and clean his traces and
    dirt and the filth that he has placed there, as this is the reason behind the
    weakness of your heart and its incapability of wanting good and doing good
    deeds, and its quickness to follow desires.

    So if health
    returns to your heart and you become fit and strong when it comes to the zikr
    of Allah the Exalted, immune from the cunningness of Satan, then you may
    slightly reduce this program to the extent that you can withstand, as the
    prophet (PBUH) said “You should do what you can withstand” [Bukhari &
    Muslim from the hadith of Aisha (RAA)], unless you can withstand more than
    this, for in this case you should increase doing good as long as your heart
    loves good deeds.

    faithful duties are the levels as considered by Allah: the more a servant does,
    s/he ascends in the levels of piety. The best things to perform are what Allah
    has prescribed upon you (obligatory forms of worship). You will notice that
    things have changed in a surprising manner, as long as you maintain the
    prescription I have given you, and you will find yourself hating to commit sins
    and your heart not wanting them, looking at them with inferiority and disdain.
    You will also like good deeds and feel enthusiastic about them, and feel their
    good taste in your heart. The secret behind this change is that you have
    treated you heart with the zikr of Allah the Exalted and good deeds until your
    heart has become healthy wanting good and loving it after it was ill, wanting
    evil and sins and loving them. Allah, the Truth and

    Exalted says
    (interpretation of the meaning) {but Allah has endeared the faith to you and
    has made it seemly in your hearts, and He has made hateful to you unbelief and
    transgression and disobedience; those are the followers of the right way).


    By grace from
    Allah and as a favor; and Allah is Most Knowing, Most Wise} and Allah knows


    Sh. Hamed ibn
    Abdullah Al-Ali, who loves good for You. 

    Why Our Prayers and Dua'as are Not Answered

    Why Our Prayers and Dua'as are Not AnsweredTaken from Khushoo fis-Salaat (p.62) of Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalee - rahimullah.

    IBRAHEEM IBN ADHAM - may Allaah have mercy on him - a third century scholar, a teacher and a companion of Sufyaan ath-Thawree, was asked about the saying of Allaah - the Most High:


    "We supplicate and we are not answered."

    So he said to them:

    You know Allaah, Yet you do not obey Him,

    You recite the Qur'aan, Yet do not act according to it,

    You know Shaitaan(Devil), Yet you have agreed with him,

    You proclaim that you love Muhammed, (P.B.U.H) Yet you abandon his Sunnah,

    You proclaim your love for Paradise, Yet you do not act to gain it,

    You proclaim your fear the Fire, Yet you do not prevent yourselves from sins,

    You say "Indeed death is true", Yet you have not prepared for it,

    You point out the faults with others, Yet you do not look at your faults,

    You eat of that which Allah has provided for you, Yet you do not thank Him,

    You bury your dead, Yet you do not take a lesson from it."

    Tuesday, November 15, 2011

    Reconciling the fact that the khaleefah should be from Quraysh with the hadeeth about obeying an Abyssinian slave


    What is the understanding pertaining to the statement in the "Aqeedah " that the Khalifat belongs to the Quraish, how does the Hadith pertain to "Obey the Amir even if he be an Abysinnian with a head like a raisin", could you pls help us to reconcile this and may Allah guide us to accept the truth?

    Praise be to Allaah. 

    The hadeeth about the rulers being
    from Quraysh is a saheeh hadeeth which was narrated through many isnaads.
    The basic principle is that the leader should be from Quraysh. But in
    the case where the khaleefah has seized power by force and is ruling
    the people by force, the people have to obey him and it is haraam to
    rebel against him, even if he is an Abyssinian slave as it says in the

    Don’t be such a fanatic!


    What is the ruling on a person who, when he is advised with regard to an action which goes against sharee’ah, immediately says, “Don’t be such a fanatic and so extreme; be moderate.” We hope you can explain what moderation is.

    Praise be to Allaah. 

    is advised concerning something that is haraam according to sharee’ah,
    so that he can avoid it or give it up, or is told of an obligation so
    that he can fulfil it, then he says something like this, is doing wrong.
    What he should do, if he is advised, is to thank the person who has
    offered the advice, then he should look at himself and if the advice
    was justified, then he should avoid the haraam thing and do what is
    obligatory. As far as his comment “you are a fanatic” is concerned,
    fanaticism, laxity and moderation are all to be understood in reference
    to sharee’ah. Whatever is in accordance with sharee’ah is moderate;
    whatever exceeds that is extreme and whatever falls short of that is
    laxity. The standard in all cases is sharee’ah and the meaning of moderation
    is that which is in accordance with the sharee’ah. Whatever is in accordance
    with sharee’ah is moderate.

    Appointing an ameer (leader)


    What is the ruling on appointing someone
    as an ameer when not travelling, such as when a group of young men are sharing a flat or
    in a camp that is held within the city or elsewhere?

    Praise be to Allaah.

    The reports that have been narrated concerning
    appointing an ameer refer specifically to when people are travelling, because when people
    are travelling they need to be able to refer their opinions to a leader or ameer. But when
    people are not travelling, usually each individual is busy with his own affairs and they
    do not need an ameer.

    But they may appoint someone to be the head of their society or group,
    so if for example they are living in a flat, they may say” we need someone to
    organize our affairs in this flat, so we will appoint So and so to be our head or
    ameer.” Then they can discuss with him the running of this household’s affairs,
    such as what kind of food to have, setting times of rest, deciding what needs to be
    bought, and so on, so they discuss these things with him and agree to accept what he says.
    This is correct, in sha Allaah.

    Proportional representation in Islamic centers


    Is proportional representation in Islam alowable or not.The situation is thus, if there are say 10 Muslim organisations(each with a differant
    number of members) and they all join together to form one mother organisation so that they can co-ordinate between the Islamic work between each other. Is it
    permissible that we catogorise the organisation according to their membership.
    That is if one organisation has 1-100 members they get one vote, 101-200
    members they get two votes and so on, Is this permissible in Islam? I hope you can answer this thank you

    Praise be to Allaah.

    There is no problem with this because it is a way of organizing things in order to reach the right
    or better opinion, by using points to represent groups according to their size or number of
    members. But you should know that a "one man one vote" system may be unfair if the people
    involved are not equal in trustworthiness, ability, knowledge and experience that are necessary
    for the kind of decision-making that you want to undertake. If they are equal or close enough,
    then "one man one vote" is fair and wise. The people of authority (ahl al-hall wa’l-’aqd) in this
    ummah are those who have knowledge and virtue, who are rational and wise, and who are
    prominent and distinguished. These, not the ignorant masses whose opinion is worthless, are
    the ones who select the khaleefah. May Allaah help you to do that which will please Him.

    Muslim attitudes towards violence and how to react to kaafir aggression against the Muslim community


    In view of the critical situation which we Muslims are now facing in America, with aggression – which may reach the point of killing – shots being fired at mosques, women with hijaab being harassed in the streets, assaults against Muslim students in schools and universities, persecution of some Muslim employees in their workplaces, all because of the recent events in which some Muslim persons are being accused of causing explosions in the capital and elsewhere, we want to ask whether it is permissible for us to forego praying in jamaa’ah or praying Jumu’ah in the mosque? And what about our women’s hijaab? And what is the ruling on us foregoing Islamic dress?

    Praise be to Allaah and blessings and peace be upon the
    Messenger of Allaah. 

    What we have heard about what our Muslim brothers are
    going through in kaafir countries in the north and the south, where
    they are being harassed and persecuted for something in which they did
    not take part and in which they played no role, is not strange, given
    the wrongdoing and hatred of the kuffaar, even though they claim to
    be the people of justice, fairness and freedom. What is the crime of
    a Muslim woman who walks down the street in her hijaab? What is the
    crime of a Muslim who leaves his home to go and pray, not to spread
    mischief in the land? What is the crime of a Muslim employee who goes
    to his company or a student who goes to his university or a schoolgirl
    who is walking to her school, not going out to bomb and destroy? If
    the western man in the street was fair-minded – at least with himself
    – he would go and take revenge on the people who plotted and took part
    in harming him. But one who does not fear God could do anything, and
    the very least that the Muslims will be faced with is curses and insults.
    Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

    “and you shall certainly hear much that will grieve
    you from those who received the Scripture before you (Jews and Christians)
    and from those who ascribe partners to Allaah; but if you persevere
    patiently, and become Al-Muttaqoon (the pious) then verily, that
    will be a determining factor in all affairs”[Aal ‘Imraan 3:186] 

    Our attitude must be clear; we must explain to the kuffaar
    the ruling of Islamic sharee’ah concerning harming and killing others.
    We should tell them that Islam forbids harming innocent people in any
    way, whether that involves harming their bodies, their wealth or their
    honour. The Prophet

    (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There should be neither
    harming nor reciprocating harm.” It is not permissible to kill a kaafir
    who is not hostile or who has a legitimate peace treaty with the Muslims;
    rather treating a non-hostile kaafir with kindness is part of the Islamic
    religion, especially if that is done to call him to Islam and soften
    his heart (towards Islam). Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

    “Allaah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly
    with those who fought not against you on account of religion nor drove
    you out of your homes. Verily, Allaah loves those who deal with equity”[al-Mumtahinah

    At times of war against the kuffaar, it is not permissible
    for a Muslim to deliberately kill a kaafir child or woman who is not
    bearing arms against the Muslims or helping in the fight. It was narrated
    that the Prophet

    (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to the Muslim army:
    “Go out in the name of Allaah and by the help of Allaah, following the
    way of the Messenger of Allaah. Do not kill any old man, infant, child
    or woman… spread goodness and do good, for Allaah loves those who do
    good.” (Narrated by Abu Dawood, 2614; its isnaad includes Khaalid ibn
    al-Faraz, of whom Ibn Hajar said in al-Taqreeb, he is maqbool
    (acceptable) i.e., if there are corroborating reports) 

    This is supported by the advice which Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq
    (may Allaah be pleased with him) gave to the commander of his army:
    “I advise you of ten things: do not kill a woman, or a child, or any
    old person, or cut down any fruit trees…” (al-Muwatta’, 982,
    Kitaab al-Jihaad). 

    The kaafirs whom the Muslims fight and inflict harm and
    loss upon are the kaafirs who fight the Muslims and drive them out of
    their homes, or help to drive them out of their homes and punish and
    mistreat them, and who stand in the way of calling people to Islam and
    prevent people from following the path of Allaah, and prevent the spread
    of Islam. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

    “It is only as regards those who fought against you
    on account of religion, and have driven you out of your homes, and helped
    to drive you out, that Allaah forbids you to befriend them. And whosoever
    will befriend them, then such are the Zaalimoon (wrongdoers
    those who disobey Allaah).”[al-Mumtahinah 60:9] 

    Such people are to be fought against when [the Muslims]
    have the power to do so, and when fighting them and declaring jihad
    against them is more likely to serve a purpose. But when you can achieve
    your purpose with gentleness and kindness, it is not right to resort
    to violence and force. Muslims should only use force when they are compelled
    to, and as a last resort. They should not initiate fighting, unless
    there is some cause on the part of the kaafirs, such as their fighting
    the Muslims, or helping other enemies of the Muslims, or preventing
    them from following the path of Allaah and establishing the law of Allaah
    in the land. 

    We should also remind these kaafirs of the massacres
    which have been carried out and are still being carried out against
    Muslims in all parts of the world, in Bosnia, Kosova, Chechnya, Palestine
    and Kashmir, which are being supported by Jews, Christians and others.
    Is the blood of the Muslims cheaper than the blood of others? Should
    there be mourners for non-Muslims who are killed and not for Muslims
    who are killed? 

    Moreover, when the Orthodox Christians carried out massacres
    in Bosnia and Kosova, in which the numbers of those killed exceeded
    200,000, apart from those who were wounded or raped, and the economic
    losses that resulted, did the Muslims in the Arab and Islamic countries
    launch attacks against the Orthodox Christians who live in their countries,
    or kill any of them, or open fire against their churches and subject
    them to terror?! What does this tell you? 

    It is very important for Muslims to explain these things
    to non-Muslims, in order to establish proof against the kuffaar. This
    is something that Allaah wants. Secondly, among the kuffaar there are
    intelligent and fair-minded people, and people who are receptive to
    the guidance of Islam; perhaps they will be affected by a clear explanation.
    Thirdly, no Muslim should permit himself to be accused without explaining
    his innocence. The distorted image of Muslims is one of the things that
    is keeping the kaafirs away from the truth and being affected by the
    Muslims; indeed it may make them treat the Muslims like outcasts, resulting
    in additional wrongdoing towards the Muslims. 

    With regard to the question, it is permissible for a
    Muslim at times of tribulation, when they cannot walk safely through
    the streets or reach the mosque safe and sound, to pray at home and
    not attend prayers in jamaa’ah. But we must examine the situation more
    carefully before deciding not to attend Jumu’ah prayer because of its
    extreme importance. So we should not stop praying in jamaa’ah or stop
    attending Jumu’ah prayers on the grounds of mere speculation or an unlikely
    possibility of aggression. Rather if a person is certain or believes
    it to be most likely that he will be attacked if he goes to the mosque,
    then it is permissible for him not to go.

    Among the opinions of the scholars concerning the permissibility
    of refraining from going to Jumu’ah prayers or prayers in jamaa’ah because
    of fear is the comment of Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him)
    who said: “The one who is sick and the one who is afraid is excused
    from attending them – i.e., Jumu’ah and prayers in jamaa’ah – according
    to the view of most of the scholars. Ibn ‘Abbaas narrated that the Prophet

    (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Whoever hears the
    call to prayer and is not prevented from responding by an excuse –’
    They said, ‘What is the excuse, O Messenger of Allaah?’ He said, ‘Fear
    or sickness, (otherwise) the prayer that he offers will not be accepted.’”
    (narrated by Abu Dawood, 1/130. Shaykh al-Albaani classed this version
    of the hadeeth as da’eef (weak), but he classed as saheeh (sound) the
    version narrated by Ibn Maajah, 793, which says: “Whoever hears the
    call and does not come, his prayer is not valid, except for one who
    has an excuse.” Al-Irwaa’ 2/337). And Bilaal used to give the
    call to prayer; one day the Prophet

    (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came when he was sick, and
    said, ‘Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer.’” (al-Bukhaari, 633;
    Muslim, 418) 

    Fear is of three kinds: fear for oneself, fear for one’s
    wealth, and fear for one’s family. The first kind means fearing capture
    by an oppressive ruler, or an enemy, or a thief, or attack by wild animals,
    or a flood, etc., which may cause harm to oneself.

     The second kind means fear for one’s wealth if
    one leaves home, as we have mentioned, such as oppressive rulers, thieves
    and the like, or fear that one’s house may be broken into or burned
    down or something like that; in such cases one is excused from attending
    Jumu’ah and prayers in jamaa’ah.  

    The third kind means fear for one’s child and family.
    In all such cases one is excused from attending Jumu’ah and prayers
    in jamaa’ah. This was the view of ‘Ataa’, al-Hasan, al-Oozaa’i and al-Shaafa’i,
    and we know of no difference of opinion concerning this matter.”

    (summarized from al-Mughni, 2/376). 

    In Fataawa al-Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz,
    when a man asked him about refraining from attending prayers in jamaa’ah
    because he was afraid for his wife, he said, “If there is some danger
    to your wife (at home) and she is not safe, and she is surrounded by
    things which give rise to fear, then he is excused for praying at home
    because of his fear for his wife…” Then he said: “But if your wife is
    not safe and the place is not safe, and danger is present, then it is
    o.k. for you to pray at home; this is a legitimate excuse…” 

    Majmoo’ Fataawa Samaahat al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz
    (may Allaah have mercy on him), 12/42 

    With regard to Muslim women, they should stay in their
    homes and not go out – as much as they can – lest they be exposed to
    harm. Their relatives and neighbours should help them to meet their
    needs so that they will not be forced to go out. This is a means of
    earning great reward by helping those who are in desperate need. 

    With regard to Muslim men giving up distinctive Islamic
    dress and wearing the clothes commonly found in the kaafir society in
    which he lives, that is o.k., especially at times of persecution and
    harassment. Imaam Ibn Taymiyah said: 

    “The Muslim in a kaafir country that is at war with the
    Muslims or otherwise is not commanded to differ from them in outward
    appearance, because of the harm that may result from that. Rather it
    is recommended or obligatory for men to resemble them sometimes in his
    outward appearance, if that serves a religious purpose such as calling
    them to Islam, or finding out about their true state of affairs in order
    to inform the Muslims of that, or warding off their harm from the Muslims,
    and other righteous goals.” (Iqtidaa’ al-Siraat al-Mustaqeem,
    p. 176). 

    words of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah must be understood correctly.
    He is speaking of special circumstances or cases of necessity; he does
    not mean at all that Muslims should become assimilated with the kaafirs
    and do evil things or drink alcohol with them or that Muslim children
    should go to churches and lose their Islamic identity. Rather what is
    meant is that it is permissible to forego distinctive Islamic dress
    – for example – and wear clothing of the type prevalent in the kaafir
    country, and to speak the language of the kaafirs, etc., in order to
    ward off the harm of the kaafirs, especially in an atmosphere that is
    charged with hostility, such as that mentioned in the question. 

    Perhaps these events will give the Muslims who are living
    in kaafir lands unnecessarily and for no shar’i purpose the opportunity
    to review their situation and consider going back to the Muslim world
    and making hijrah from the land of the kaafirs. 

    We ask Allaah to protect us and all our Muslim brothers
    from harm, wrongdoing and evil, and guide us to the right path. May
    Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and grant him peace. 

    The uprising of the Palestinian people


    Today we are witnessing a major political phenomenon that has shaken the world, namely the uprising of the Palestinian people against the Jews (the Intifada). Can you suggest something that we can say to the Muslim people in occupied Palestine?

    Praise be to Allaah.


    I advise them to fear Allaah and to cooperate in doing good
    and in righteous deeds, for Allaah will support those who support His cause.
    Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

     “O you who believe! If you help (in
    the cause of) Allaah, He will help you, and make your foothold firm”

    [Muhammad 47:7]

     And Allaah says elsewhere in
    His Holy Book:

     “Allaah has promised those among
    you who believe and do righteous good deeds, that He will certainly grant
    them succession to (the present rulers) in the land, as He granted it to
    those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practise
    their religion which He has chosen for them (i.e. Islam). And He will
    surely, give them in exchange a safe security after their fear (provided)
    they (believers) worship Me and do not associate anything (in worship) with

    [al-Noor 24:55]

     I advise all of our brothers to cooperate with them and I
    advise the rich and those in positions of authority to extend the hand of
    aid to their brothers in Palestine who are striving to regain their land and
    achieve victory over the enemy, in sha Allaah. May Allaah support them with
    the truth and reward them with all good on behalf of the Muslims. All they
    have to do is to persevere in patience and constancy, and vie in such
    perseverance, for the promise of Allaah is true and Allaah will help those
    who help His cause. May Allaah help them and grant them victory over their
    enemies, and may He enable the Muslims to help them and stand firm with them
    until Allaah grants them victory over their enemy, for He is the best of


    Solution to the Palestinian issue


    What is the way of solving the Palestinian issue which becomes more complicated each day?

    Praise be to Allaah.


    The Muslim is deeply grieved and filled with sorrow as the
    Palestinian situation goes from bad to worse, and gets more complicated,
    until it has ended up in the state we have seen in recent days, because of
    differences among neighbouring nations and their failure to stand together
    as one against the enemy and their failure to adhere to the rule of Islam on
    which Allaah has made victory dependent, and has promised those who adhere
    to it that they will gain power and become powerful in the land, and has
    warned of grave danger and a severe punishment, if the neighbouring nations
    do not hasten to unite once more and adhere to the Islamic ruling concerning
    this matter,  which concerns them and the entire Islamic world. 

    It is worth pointing out in this context that the Palestinian
    issue is an Islamic issue, first and last, but the enemies of Islam are
    striving their utmost to remove it from the Islamic map and make the
    non-Arab Muslims think that it is an Arab issue that does not concern the
    non-Arabs. It seems that they have succeeded in that to some extent. 

    Hence I think that a solution cannot be reached in this
    matter unless it is regarded as an Islamic issue and the Muslims cooperate
    to find a solution, and wage an Islamic jihad against the Jews, until the
    land is given back to its people and the Jewish immigrants go back to the
    countries from which they came, and the original Jewish inhabitants stay in
    their towns under Islamic rule, not communist or secular rule. In this
    manner truth will prevail and falsehood will be defeated, and the people
    whose land it is will return to their land under Islamic rule and none
    other. And Allaah is the source of strength.

    The situation of the Muslims in Palestine


    I was wondering wha you believe the fight taking place in the Holy Land is all about and what the end result might be.

    Praise be to Allaah.


    Undoubtedly what is happening to the Muslims
    in the Holy Land of hardship, torture, expulsion, killing and harm is a matter which causes sorrow to every Muslim, and indeed to every non-Muslim
    who is reasonable, fair-minded and compassionate, when they see the blatant persecution inflicted upon innocent people, with the intention of
    driving them out of their homes so that the enemy can take their place, which is an enemy that possesses the most advanced weapons, with which
    they attack unarmed people who are deprived of the means of defending themselves. 

    This Muslim people has endured for more than
    fifty years, facing unending Zionist arrogance and aggression, which pays no heed to human dignity or any covenant or treaty, or any law, except
    that to which their own whims and desires make them inclined and in which their evil rabbis and warlords encourage them. 

    The outcome of that is well known to Muslims
    as well as Jews, which is that the consequences will be in favour of the pious and the party of God will be the victors. The wrongdoer will never
    enjoy security, stability and prosperity, rather he will be faced with fear, anxiety, grief and shame, until the day comes when the Muslims come
    back to their religion and are governed by the sharee’ah of their Lord, then they will meet the Jews in battle, where the two sides will face one
    another, and victory will go to the people of faith. 

    Al-Bukhaari (2926) and Muslim (2922) narrated
    from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allaah SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The Hour will not begin until the Muslims
    fight the Jews and kill them, until a Jew will be hiding behind a rock or a tree, and the rock or tree will say, ‘O Muslim, O slave of Allaah,
    here is a Jew behind me, come and kill him!’ except for the box-thorn (al-gharqad), for it is one of the trees of the Jews.” 

    We ask Allaah to hasten the Muslims’ return
    to their religion and to grant them the means of victory. May He grant us the joy of seeing His religion prevail and His enemies humiliated, and
    may He raise the status of those who are persecuted, tortured or killed for His sake. 

    And Allaah knows best.

    It is not permissible to forsake a Muslim because of differences in points of view


    I know that it is only permissible for a muslim to be mad at a fellow brother for 3 days at most، and the one who is better is who talks first. However، if I only see a certain brother once a week or so، is it permissible for me to turn away 3 times that I see him، or do I have stick with the 3 day limit. If I do، then he will never know my displeasure with him. I know this isn't a good attitude to have، but sometimes a brother may do something and I would like to let him know that I do not approve of it.

    Praise be to Allaah.


    It is not permissible to forsake a Muslim, because the
    Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “It is not
    permissible for a man to forsake his Muslim brother for more than three
    days, each of them turning away from the other when they meet. The better of
    them is the one who gives the greeting of salaam first.” (Narrated by
    al-Bukhaari, 5727; Muslim, 2560). This applies especially if the believer is
    a relative, such as a brother, nephew, uncle or cousin, because in such
    cases forsaking is an even worse sin. 

    This applies unless the person is committing a sin and there
    is an interest to be served by forsaking him, i.e., that it will make him
    give up the sin. In that case there is nothing wrong with it, because this
    comes under the heading of removing evil. The Prophet (peace and
    blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever among you sees an evil
    action, let him change it with his hand [by taking action]; if he cannot,
    then with his tongue [by speaking out]; if he cannot then with his heart [by
    hating it and feeling that it is wrong], and that is the weakest of faith.”

    (Narrated by Muslim, 49).  

    The basic principle is that it is haraam for a Muslim to
    forsake his fellow-Muslim, unless there is a reason to allow it. 

    See Fataawa Manaar al-Islam, by Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, vol.
    3, p. 732. 

    Wali al-Deen al-‘Iraaqi said: 

    This prohibition applies in cases where the forsaking is
    caused by anger with regard to something permissible that has nothing to do
    with religion. With regard to forsaking someone for a religious reason, such
    as his committing sin or bid’ah, there is no prohibition on that. The
    Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded (his
    companions) to forsake Ka’b ibn Maalik, Hilaal ibn Umayyah and Maraarah ibn
    al-Rabee’ (may Allaah be pleased with them). Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said: This
    hadeeth of Ka’b indicates that it is permissible for a man to forsake his
    brother if he commits some act of bid’ah or immorality, in the hope that
    forsaking him may discipline him and serve as a rebuke to him. Abu’l-‘Abbaas
    al-Qurtubi said: With regard to forsaking a person because of sin or bid’ah,
    it should be continued until he repents from that and does not go back to
    it. Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr also said: The scholars are unanimously agreed that it
    is not permissible for a Muslim to forsake his brother for more than three
    days, unless there is the fear that speaking to him and keeping in touch
    with him will affect one’s religious commitment or have some harmful effect
    on one's spiritual and worldly interests. If that is the case, it is
    permissible to avoid him, because peaceful avoidance is better than harmful

    Tarh al-Tathreeb, 8/99 

    What you should do, if your brother has done something
    haraam, is to advise him and explain that this thing is haraam and is not
    permitted, and remind him of Allaah. If you see that he is persisting in his
    sin and you think that forsaking him will serve a purpose, then it is
    permissible to do so, as stated above. But if he has simply done something
    that you do not agree with, or it is the matter of different points of view,
    then you should explain to him that you do not agree with what he has done,
    or with his mistaken point of view. But if you make forsaking him the sign
    of your disagreeing with him, this may lead to him rejecting your view
    completely, let alone the fact that this is not a legitimate shar’i
    justification for forsaking him for more than three days. We have seen above
    in the fatwa of Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen that the basic principle is that it is
    haraam for a Muslim to forsake his fellow-Muslim, unless there is a reason
    to allow it. 

    The Muslim must be forbearing and sincere towards his
    brothers, he must be tolerant towards them and overlook their mistakes. He
    should not hasten to adopt a solution that may cause division and haraam
    kinds of forsaking. May Allaah help us all to do that which He loves and
    which pleases Him. May Allaah send blessings upon our Prophet Muhammad.

    Role of the khaleefah of the Muslims?


    What is the role of the khaleefah of the Muslims?.

    Praise be to Allaah.

    Al-Maawirdi said, describing the tasks that the imam or ruler is obliged to do:

    There are ten things that he is obliged to do that have to do with public affairs:

    1 – He must preserve the religion according to its established bases and that on which the salaf of the ummah was unanimously agreed. If an
    innovator or deviant or one who is confused about some issue emerges, he has to explain the proof to him and tell him what is correct, and deal
    with him according to the set rights and punishments so that the religion will be protected against being undermined and the ummah will be
    prevented from deviance.

    2 – He must judge between disputing parties and put an end to arguments so that justice and fairness will prevail, aggressors will not get carried
    away and no person who is wronged will feel helpless.

    3 – He must guarantee public safety and security and protect the women and children of the ummah so that people can go about their business and
    travel around in safety, with no danger to their persons or their wealth.

    4 – He must carry out hadd punishments so that the sacred limits of Allaah will not be transgressed and so that the rights of His slaves will be

    5 – He must reinforce the borders with equipment and forces so that the enemy will not find any opportunity to violate the borders of the Muslims
    or shed their blood or the blood of non-Muslims living under the protection of the Islamic state.

    6 – He must strive in jihad against those who stubbornly reject Islam after being called to it, until they become Muslim or agree to live under
    Muslim protection and pay jizyah, so that the rights of Allaah will be fulfilled and His religion will prevail over all others.

    7 – He must collect zakaah and charity money in the manner enjoined by the texts and scholarly consensus, without causing fear or being unjust.

    8 – He must work out what benefits etc are to be given to those who deserve them from the treasury of the Islamic state (bayt al-maal), without
    being either extravagant or stingy; he must pay them on time, neither early nor late.

    9 – He must appoint people who are honest and sincere to different positions, so that things will be done efficiently and wealth will be kept with
    trustworthy people.

    10 – He should supervise matters directly himself, and check on things so that the ummah will be led in a proper manner. He should not rely on
    delegating to others because he is too busy indulging in physical pleasures or worship, for he may end up delegating to a supposedly trustworthy
    person who then betrays him, or a supposedly sincere person who then cheats him. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

    “O Dawood (David)! Verily, We have placed you as a successor on the earth; so judge you between men in truth (and justice) and follow not your
    desire * for it will mislead you from the path of Allaah”

    [Saad 38:26]

    Allaah did not allow him to delegate to others without supervising them or excuse him from that; He even described that as misguidance. Even
    though these are the duties of the khaleefah as stated in religion, these are also the duties of everyone who has anyone under his care. The
    Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Each of you is a shepherd and each of you is responsible for his flock.”

    If the imam fulfils the rights of the ummah that we have mentioned above, then he has discharged his duty towards Allaah and to them, and so he is
    owed the two duties of obedience and support, unless he changes.

    To whom should ba’yah (allegiance) be given?


    Can you please clarify whether it is compulsory for every Muslim to take BAIT on some one's Hand as people did with The Prophet PBU and Khula Rashedeen.

    Praise be to Allaah.


    Bay’ah can only be given to the leader of the Muslims, and bay’ah
    is given by the decision makers – i.e., the scholars and people of virtue and status. Once they give their allegiance to him, his position of
    leadership is confirmed, and the common folk do not have to give allegiance to him themselves, rather they have to obey him so long as that does
    not entail disobedience towards Allaah.  

    Al-Maaziri said: With regard to bay’ah being given to the leader
    of the Muslims, it is sufficient for the decision makers to give him their bay’ah. It is not essential for each individual Muslim to come to him
    and put his hand in his, rather it is sufficient to commit oneself to obeying him and submitting to him by not going against him or rebel against

    Quoted from Fath al-Baari. 

    Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said
    in Sharh Saheeh Muslim: 

    With regard to bay’ah (oath of allegiance):
    the scholars are agreed that in order for it to be valid it is not essential for all the people or all the decision makers to give their bay’ah.
    Rather, if bay’ah is given by those scholars and people of virtue and status who are present, that is sufficient. It is not obligatory for each
    person to come to the leader and put his hand in his and give his oath of allegiance to him. Rather what is required of each individual is to
    submit to him and not go against him or rebel against him. 

    What is narrated in the ahaadeeth narrated in
    the books of Sunnah about bay’ah refers to giving allegiance to the Muslim leader, such as when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be
    upon him) said: “Whoever dies and did not make an oath of allegiance (to the Muslim leader) has died a death of jaahiliyyah.” (Narrated by Muslim,

    And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be
    upon him) said: “Whoever gives his oath of allegiance to a leader and gives him his hand and his heart, let him obey him as much as he can. If
    another one comes and disputes with him (for leadership), kill the second one.” (Narrated by Muslim, 1844) 

    And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be
    upon him) said: “If allegiance is given to two khaleefahs, then kill the second of them.” (Narrated by Muslim, 1853). 

    All of that undoubtedly has to do with giving
    allegiance to the Muslim leader. 

    Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (may Allaah preserve
    him) said, answering a question about giving allegiance to the various groups: Bay’ah only has to do with the leader of the Muslims; these various
    bay’ahs are innovated and they are among the causes of division. The Muslims who are living in one country or one kingdom should have one
    allegiance to one leader; it is not permissible to have several kinds of bay’ah. al-Muntaqa min Fataawa al-Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, 1/367 

    With regard to how the allegiance should be given to the leader,
    in the case of men it is done in word and in deed, namely with a handshake. In the case of women, it is done by word only. This is proven in the
    ahaadeeth which speak of how allegiance was given to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). 

    For example, ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased
    with her) said: “No, by Allaah, the hand of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) never touched the hand of any
    (non-mahram) woman. Rather he would accept their allegiance (bay’ah) in words only.”

    (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5288; Muslim,

    Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said
    in his Sharh (commentary): “This indicates that for women, allegiance is given in words only, without taking the hand of the leader, and
    for men it is done in words and by taking his hand. 

    And Allaah knows best.

    Is it permissible in Islamic sharee’ah for a woman to be a ruler?


    Are women allowed to be rulers in the islamic shariah? (i would prefer evidence from the Qur'an).

    Praise be to Allaah.



    We appreciate our brother’s keenness to find
    out and follow the evidence from the Qur’aan, but there will not necessarily be evidence specifically from the Qur’aan for every issue. Rather the
    evidence for many rulings is to be found in the saheeh Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), not the Qur’aan.
    The Muslim has to follow the evidence of both the Qur’aan and Sunnah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

    “O you who believe! Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad),
    and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allaah and His Messenger, if you
    believe in Allaah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination”

    [al-Nisa’ 4:59] 

    Allaah has commanded us to obey Him and to
    obey His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and He has commanded us to refer matters of dispute to His Book and the
    Sunnah of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). 

    Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

    “And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad) gives you, take it; and
    whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it). And fear Allaah; verily, Allaah is Severe in punishment”

    [al-Hashr 59:7] 

    Ibn Maajah
    (12) narrated from al-Miqdaam ibn Ma’di Yakrib that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Soon there
    will come a time when a man will be reclining on his pillow, and when one of my hadeeth is narrated to him, he will say, ‘The Book of Allaah is
    (sufficient) between us and you. Whatever it states is permissible we will take as permissible, and whatever it states is forbidden, we will take
    as forbidden.’ Verily, whatever the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) has forbidden is like that which Allaah
    has forbidden.” 

    Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh
    al-Jaami’, 8186 


    The evidence from the Qur’aan and Sunnah
    indicates that it is not permissible for a woman to assume positions of senior public authority, such as the caliph (khaleefah), minister of state
    (wazeer or vizier) or judge (qaadi) and so on. 

    1 – Evidence from the Qur’aan: 

    Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

    “Men are the protectors and maintainers of
    women, because Allaah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend (to support them) from their means”

    [al-Nisa 4:34] 

    Al-Qurtubi said: 

    The words “Men are the protectors and
    maintainers of women” mean that they spend on them and protect them, and also that they (men) are the rulers and governors, and the ones who
    go on military campaigns, and none of these are the role of women. 

    Tafseer al-Qurtubi,

    Ibn Katheer said: 

    It means the
    man is in charge of the woman; he is her leader, the ruler over her who disciplines her if she goes astray. 

    “because Allaah has made one of them to
    excel the other” means, because men are superior to woman, and a man is better than a woman. Hence Prophethood was given only to men, as is
    the role of caliph, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “No people will ever prosper who appoint a woman in
    charge of them.” 

    Tafseer Ibn Katheer,

    2 –Evidence from the Sunnah: 

    It was
    narrated that Abu Bakrah said: When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) heard that the people of Persia had
    appointed the daughter of Chosroes as their queen, he said, “No people will ever prosper who appoint a woman in charge of them.” 

    Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 4163. 

    Al-Shawkaani said in Nayl al-Awtaar,

    This indicates that women are not qualified
    to rule, and it is not permissible for people to appoint them as rulers, because they must avoid that which will cause them not to prosper. 

    Al-Maawirdi said, in the context of his
    discussion of the position of wazeer: 

    It is not permissible for a woman to play
    this role, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “No people will prosper if they delegate their affairs to a
    woman.” And because these positions require wisdom and resolve, which women may be lacking in, and requires appearing in public to handle matters
    directly, which is haraam for them to do. 

    Al-Ahkaam al-Sultaaniyyah,
    p. 46. 

    Ibn Hazm (may
    Allaah have mercy on him) said, in the context of his discussion on the role of caliph: 

    There is no dispute that it is not
    permissible for a woman (to be caliph). 

    Al-Fasl fi’l-Milal wa’l-Nihal,

    In al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah (21/270)
    it says: 

    The fuqaha’
    are agreed that one of the conditions of the position of caliph is that the holder should be male. The leadership of a woman is not valid, because
    the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “No people will ever prosper who appoint a woman in charge of them.” That is
    also so that he will be able to mix with men, to devote his time solely to dealing with affairs of state, and because this position involves
    handling very serious matters. The responsibility is great and this is a man’s role. 

    Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abd-Allaah ibn
    Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked the following question:  

    What is the Islamic view on a woman being
    nominated as a candidate for the position of head of state, or head of a government, or a public ministry? 

    He replied: 

    It is not permissible to appoint or elect a
    woman as head of state. This is indicated by the Qur’aan, Sunnah and scholarly consensus. In the Qur’aan, Allaah says (interpretation of the

     “Men are the
    protectors and maintainers of women, because Allaah has made one of them to excel the other…”

    [al-Nisa 4:34] 

    The ruling in the verse is general and
    includes a man’s position of leadership in his family, and applies more so to his position of public leadership. This ruling is supported by the
    reason given in the verse itself, which is men’s intellectual superiority and better understanding etc, which are basic qualifications for

    In the Sunnah, the Prophet (peace and
    blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “No people will ever prosper who appoint a woman in charge of them.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari.

    Undoubtedly this hadeeth indicates that it is
    haraam for a woman to take a position of public leadership, or to become the governor of a province or city, because all of that comes under the
    general meaning of the hadeeth, and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said that those who appoint a woman as their
    leader will never prosper. Prospering means being successful and doing well. 

    The ummah unanimously agreed in practical
    terms at the time of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and the imams of the first three generations, which the Prophet (peace and blessings of
    Allaah be upon him) testified were the best of generations, that women should not be appointed as governors or judges. There were women who were
    brilliant in religious knowledge, to whom scholars would refer concerning knowledge of Qur’aan, hadeeth and religious rulings, but no woman
    aspired to positions of public leadership during that time or any other position of that nature. The shar’i responsibilities of such positions
    cannot be carried out by women, because that involves travelling to the provinces, and mixing with the members of the ummah, and meeting with
    them, and leading the army sometimes in jihad, and negotiating with the enemy, and accepting oaths of allegiance  from members of the ummah, and
    meeting with them, men and women, at times of war and peace, and so on. This is not appropriate for a woman, and it goes against the rulings of
    sharee’ah that are established to protect her and keep her safe from having to go out and mix in such a manner. 

    Rationally speaking, women should not be
    given positions of public office, because what is required of the one who is chosen for such a position is that he should a man of great resolve,
    determination, smartness, will power and good management skills. These characteristics are lacking in women because they have been created with
    weakness in their intellect and thinking, and with strong emotions, so electing them to such positions is not in the interests of the Muslims and
    does not help them to achieve greatness. 

    And Allaah is the source of strength. May
    Allaah send blessings and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon his family and companions. 

    Majallat al-Mujtama’,
    issue no. 890. 

    And Allaah knows best.